Sexually transmitted infectious diseases are not only a medical but also a social and psychological problem in modern society.
Many of the infections, including bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, including HIV, are transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse. Some are also transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
WHO estimates that more than 340 million men and women aged 15 to 49 worldwide are newly infected with bacterial and protozoic sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis) annually. Therefore, timely detection, prevention and control of STIs are important aspects of public health protection.
Sexually transmitted infections can occur asymptomatically or with untreated symptoms, and can cause severe complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic illness and even premature death. In unborn and newborn children, chlamydia infections, gonorrhea and syphilis can cause severe and often life-threatening consequences, including congenital diseases, newborn pneumonia and low birth weight. Infection with the human papillomavirus increases the likelihood of cervical cancer, the second leading cause of death in women around the world from cancer, taking the lives of 240,000 women each year. There is a significant increase in the risk of HIV infection or transmission.
Sexually transmitted infections include: papillomavirus infection; urogenital chlamydia; urogenital trichomoniasis; genital herpes; mycoplasma infection; cytomegalovirus infection.
Symptoms of STIs
Despite the different biological properties of these pathogens, they all cause similar symptoms and diseases of the urogenital tract.
Symptoms caused by the pathogens listed can be: excreta from the genital tract (from milky, curdy to yellow-green foamy excreta); itching, burning; swelling of vaginal and vulva tissues (external genitalia); rashes on the external genitalia in the form of bubbles, which later open with the formation of erosion; finger-like or wartlike sprawl single, multiple and plum (in the form of cauliflower) formations; dyspareunia (discomfort or painfulness in the area of external genitals and small pelvis, arising during sexual intercourse); disuria (discomfort or painfulness during urination).
One of the first signs of possible infection of STIs is isolation from the genital tract. This symptom can be caused by a variety of diseases.
Diagnosis of STDs
Diagnostics is based on laboratory and functional research methods.
Modern research methods required to determine the patient’s treatment tactics:
- Nucleic acid amplification methods;
- cultural method of research – sowing (isolation of a pathogen in cell culture);
- immunoenzyme analysis (determination of specific antibodies to blood pathogens);
- microscopic examination of the detachable (vagina, urethra):
- cytological method of investigation; clinical blood and urine analysis; biochemical blood analysis and general urine analysis;
- small pelvic ultrasound;
- immune status determination (interferon status with determination of sensitivity of interferon-producing cells to immunomodulators);
- aspiration of uterine cavity contents, if necessary.
The choice of tactics and method of treatment is determined by the doctor based on the results of the patient’s examination.