Sexually transmitted infectious diseases are not only a medical but also a social and psychological problem in modern society. Many of the infections, including bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, including HIV, are transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse. Some are also transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections
Highly confessional infectious disease, affecting mainly the urogenital system, caused by certain serotypes of chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis), sexually transmitted, leading to the development of inflammatory changes in the organs of the urogenital system and has a significant impact on the generative function of the woman. For example, chlamydia is detected in 80% of women who were sexual partners of men infected with chlamydia. The disease is the cause of a pronounced adhesion process of small pelvis, tubal-peritoneal infertility.
Urogenital mycoplasms (ureaplasma urealitis, ureaplasma parvum, mycoplasma genitalium, mycoplasma hominis) are conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, but are able under certain conditions to cause diseases such as urethritis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, arthritis, postpartum endometritis, pathology of pregnancy, fetus and newborn, sepsis, and others.
Chronic, recurrent, viral disease, mainly sexually transmitted. The main causative agent of genital herpes in most cases (70-80%) is herpes simplex virus type 2 (VPH-2). Type 1 herpes simplex virus (VPH-1) – usually causes lesions in the lips, face, arms, and torso, but in recent years, the frequency of genital herpes virus has increased (20-30% of cases), which is probably due to changes in sexual behavior.
A widespread infection circulating in the human population is the cytomegaloviral infection (CMVI). The source of infection may be a virus carrier, an acute patient (in the case of a primary infection) or a patient during an acute infection. The main routes of transmission are airborne, sexual, contact, oral, parenteral, enteral and vertical routes of infection, with all biological fluids and body excreta (saliva, urine, etc.) transmitted.
Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) – Initiates a variety of genital diseases associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Cofactors of HPV infection are early onset of sexual activity, frequent change of sexual partners, other sexually transmitted infections, smoking.
Prolonged infection with certain (oncogenic) types of human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause cervical cancer in women and anogenital cancer in both sexes.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush) – is not a sexually transmitted disease, due to infectious lesions of the vulva and vagina yeastlike fungi of the genus Candida, their excessive growth. These microorganisms are natural inhabitants of the human body, but under certain conditions are able to multiply rapidly and cause trouble. Approximately 75% of women endure at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during their lifetime, and 25% of women have had vulvovaginal candidiasis for many years.
The following factors may trigger the development of candidiasis: antibiotic treatment, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, reduced immunity, diabetes mellitus, wearing tight-fitting synthetic clothing, frequent use of tampons, a high-calorie diet rich in carbohydrates (flour products and sweets). The woman is worried about abundant vaginal discharge, more often white, with “milk” plaques of color; itching, burning sensation or irritation in the area of the external genitalia; increased vulvovaginal itching in warmth (during sleep or after bathing); hypersensitivity of mucosa to water and urine; increased itching and painful sensations after intercourse.